There can be cases where when DNA paternity testing is required however the alleged father is not readily available for testing. This can be for any of a number of reasons, such as:
- a) He can be residing in a different location, or even a different country.
- b) He can be denying paternity, and therefore refusing to provide a sample.
- c) He can be unknown: an absent father can be one of a number of men that could conceivably be the father of the child.
A. The Alleged Father resides at a different address
There are cases in which the alleged father or fathers reside in a different location, and may not be able or willing to travel in order to carry out a paternity test. In this case, however, it is still possible for him to carry out a paternity test from his home address. Many DNA testing companies will offer the option of sending DNA collection kits to different addresses. There may even be cases in which more than one father can be tested at the same time, with DNA sampling kits sent to the different addresses accordingly. In this case each alleged father will need to collect a DNA sample using the oral swabs provided in the DNA sampling kit, and send the samples back to the laboratory.
Once the laboratory receives all the relevant samples, paternity testing procedures will commence. Similarly the results of the paternity test are normally sent by email or by post, and will be sent to all the relevant parties if so required. Therefore a DNA paternity test can be carried out with ease even in cases where the various persons taking part in the test reside in very different locations.
B. The Alleged Father resides abroad
If the alleged father is working abroad, the procedure is exactly the same as the DNA paternity testing mentioned above. In these cases it is preferable to choose a DNA testing company that operates local offices in several countries, so that testing kits can be dispatched from the closest location for increased efficiency. Once the alleged father has received his kit, he can collect the samples for the paternity test himself (usually swab wipes from the inside of his cheeks) and return them in the enclosed pre-addressed envelopes for laboratory analysis.
C. The Alleged Father is Denying Paternity
There are several reasons why a man can deny being the father of a child, including:
- He genuinely believes himself not to be the father.
- He is trying to avoid taking responsibility for the child and wants to avoid paying child support to the mother.
- He does not want an alleged child to benefit from his estate after his death.
There are likely more that you can think of, but these are some common reason for an alleged father being reluctant to take a DNA paternity test. In these cases, most commonly, the mother will need to obtain a court order that will oblige the alleged father or fathers to participate in the paternity test. In these cases a legal paternity test will be required, that is, a paternity test that has been authenticated by a neutral third party, and where an independent person will collect the samples, and ensure that no part of the testing process has been tampered with.
An alternative solution, in this type of case, is to obtain what is called an ‘alternative’ or ‘non-standard’ sample‘ from the alleged father, for example hair samples from a hairbrush, skin cells from a toothbrush or even bodily fluid stains from bedding or clothing. Cigarette butts and pipes can also be used. In these cases, however one must be aware that the results of this test can be used for informational purposes only and will not have any legal validity. One must also be aware that the probability of extraction of DNA from these kinds of samples can be lower than that of DNA obtained from normal oral swab. Also one must be aware of the possibility of contamination of these kinds of samples with DNA belonging to another person.
D. The Father is Deceased
In cases in which the alleged father is deceased, it is still possible to carry out a paternity test, although it will of course involve more complex procedures. In these cases the options are:
- To take a sample directly from the deceased person
- To use alternative samples belonging to the deceased person
- To test relatives of the deceased person.
For more information on paternity testing in cases in which the alleged father is deceased please visit our Paternity Testing with Deceased Father.